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KANDA V

THE EXPLANATION OF THE PILING OF THE FIRE ALTAR

PRAPATHAKA I

The Placing of the Fire in the Fire-pan

v. 1. 1.

He offers the Savitr offerings, for instigation. He offers with (an oblation) ladled up four times, cattle have four feet; verily he wins cattle; the quarters are four; verily he finds support in the quarters. The metres departed from the gods (saying), 'We will not carry your oblation without sharing (in it)'; for them they kept this (oblation) ladled up four times, for the Puronuvakya the Yajya, the deity, the Vasat call; in that he offers what has been ladled up four times, he delights the metres, and they delighted carry to the gods his oblation. If he desire of a man [1], 'May he become worse', he should offer each separately for him; verily he makes him severed from the libations; he becomes worse. If he desire of a man, 'May he become better', he should offer all for him continuously; verily he makes him master of the libation; he becomes better. This is the mastering of the sacrifice. He abandons prosperity in the beginning of the sacrifice who departs from Agni as the deity; these offerings to Savitr number eight, the Gayatri has eight syllables, Agni is connected with the Gayatri [2]; verily he does not abandon prosperity at the beginning of the sacrifice, nor Agni as the deity. The offerings to Savitr number eight, the libation (as a whole) is the ninth; verily he extends the threefold (Stoma) at the beginning of the sacrifice. If he desire, 'May I confer on the metres the glory of the sacrifice', he should make a Re verse last; verily he confers on the metres the glory of the sacrifice. If he desire, 'May I confer on the sacrificer the glory of the sacrifice', he should make a Yajus formula last; verily he confers on the sacrificer the glory of the sacrifice. 'By the Rc make the Stoma to flourish', he says [3], for prosperity. With four (verses) he takes up the spade; the metres are four; verily (he takes it up) with the metres. 'On the instigation of god Savitr', he says, for instigation. Agni went away from the gods, he entered the reed; he resorted to the hole which is formed by the perforation of the reed; the spade is perforated to make it his birthplace; wherever he lived, that became black; (the spade) is stained, for perfection of form; it is pointed at both ends, for the winning of light both hence and from yonder world; it is a fathom long; so much is the strength in man; (verily it is) commensurate with his strength; it is unlimited in girth, to win what is unlimited; that tree which has fruit is strong among trees, the reed bears fruit, (the spade) is of reed, to win strength.

v. 1. 2.

That part of the sacrifice is unsuccessful which is performed with no Yajus. 'This bond of order they grasped', (with these words) he takes up the horse's halter, to make a Yajus and to make successful the sacrifice. 'Swiftly run hither, O steed', (with these words) he halters the horse; verily he proclaims its greatness in this form. 'Yoke ye the ass', (with these words) (he halters) the ass; verily he establishes the ass on the non-existent; therefore the ass is less real than the horse. 'In each need more strong', he says [1]; verily in each need he yokes him; 'in each contest we invoke', he says; the contest is food; verily he wins food. 'As friends, Indra to aid us', he says; verily he wins power. Agni went away from the gods, him Prajapati found; the horse is connected with Prajapati, with the horse he collects (it), for the finding (of Agni). Now confusion occurs in that they perform the same thing with a better and worse (instrument), for the ass is worse than the horse [2]; they lead the horse in front to avoid confusion; therefore the worse follows after the better. Many are the foes of the man who waxes great, he waxes great as it were who piles the fire, the steed has a thunderbolt; 'hastening come hither, trampling the enemy', he says; verily he tramples with the thunderbolt on the evil foe; 'from the lordship of Rudra', he says; cattle are connected with Rudra; verily having begged from Rudra [3] cattle he acts for his own interest. 'With Pusan as fellow', he says; Pusan is the leader together of roads; (verily it serves) for attainment. The fire has dust for its abode; the Angirases brought it together before the deities; 'from the abode of earth do thou approach Agni of the dust in the mode of Angiras', he says; verily he brings it together in one abode with the deities. 'We approach Agni of the dust in the manner of Angiras', he says; verily he appropriates the strength of him whom he meets [4]. 'The fire should be brought together after announcing it to Prajapati', they say; Prajapati is this earth, the ant-heap is its ear; 'we will bear Agni of the dust in the manner of Angiras', (with these words) he pays reverence to the mound of an ant-heap; verily after announcing it to Prajapati face to face, he brings together the fire. 'We bear Agni of the dust in the manner of Angiras', he says; verily he appropriates the strength of him whom he meets. 'Agni hath gazed along the forefront of the dawns' [5], he says, to light up (the heaven). 'The steed coming, from the way', 'Coming to earth, O steed', he says; verily he wishes for it with the first and obtains it with the second; with two (verses) he makes it come, for support; (with two) of the same form, therefore cattle are born of the same form. 'Thy back is the sky, thy abode earth', he says; Prajapati quickened him from these worlds; verily he proclaims its greatness in this form. The steed is possessed of the thunderbolt, by its incisors it is more puissant than those with one row of incisors, by its hair than those with two rows; him whom he hates he should conceive as beneath its feet; verily with the thunderbolt he lays him low.

v. 1. 3.

'The strong steed hath stepped forth', with these two (verses) he makes it step forth; (with two) of the same form, therefore cattle are born of the same form. He pours water down; where there are waters, there Plants take root, and where plants take root cattle find support through them, the sacrifice (finds support) in cattle, the sacrificer in the sacrifice, offspring in the sacrificer; therefore he pours water down, for support. If the Adhvaryu were to pour the libation on that which is without fire, the Adhvaryu would be [1] blind, the Raksases would destroy the sacrifice; he puts gold down and offers; verily he pours on what has fire, the Adhvaryu does not become blind, the Raksases do not destroy the sacrifice. 'I touch Agni with mind, with ghee', he says, for with mind man approaches the sacrifice; 'who lordeth it over all the worlds', he says, for he lords it over all; 'broad, vast, with pervading vital power', he says, for he born small becomes great [2]; 'most extensive, impetuous, winning food', he says; verily he makes pleasant food for him; all is pleasant for him who knows thus. 'I touch thee with speech, with ghee', he says; therefore what a man conceives with mind he utters with speech; 'with friendly (mind) he says, to smite away the Raksases; 'with mortal glory, with engaging colour, Agni', he says; verily he bestows beauty upon him; he is possessed of beauty who knows thus [3]. By mind must he obtain that libation which the Adhvaryu offers in that which is without fire; he offers with two verses containing the word 'mind', to obtain the two libations; with two (he offers), for support. As the beginning of the sacrifice is performed the Raksases are fain to destroy the sacrifice; now then is this (place) the beginning of the sacrifice when the libation comes upon it; he draws a line around, to smite away the Raksases; with three (verses) he draws a line around, Agni is threefold; verily from the whole extent of Agni he smites away the Raksases [4]; with a Gayatri verse he draws a line around, the Gayatri is brilliance; verily with brilliance, he encircles him; with a Tristubh verse he draws a line around, the Tristubh is power; verily he encircles him with power; with an Anustubh verse he draws a line around, the Anustubh, envelops all the metres, (verily it serves) for complete attainment; with the Anustubh in the middle (he draws), the Anustubh is speech, therefore from the middle we speak with speech; with the Gayatri first he draws, then with the Anustubh, then with the Tristubh; the Gayatri is brilliance, the Anustubh the sacrifice, the Tristubh power; verily he encircles the sacrifice, with brilliance and power, on both sides.

v. 1. 4.

'On the instigation of the god Savitr thee', (with these words) he digs, for instigation. Then with it he produces smoke; 'Full of light, thee, O Agni, of fair aspect', he says, and thereby he produces light. Agni on birth afflicted creatures with pain, him the gods appeased by the half-verse; 'auspicious and harmless to offspring', he says; verily he makes him appeased for offspring. He digs with two (verses), for support. 'Thou art the back of the waters', (with these words) he takes the lotus leaf [1]; the lotus leaf is the back of the waters; verily with its own form he takes it. He gathers with a lotus leaf; the lotus leaf is the birthplace of Agni; verily he gathers Agni with his own birthplace. He gathers with a black antelope skin; the black antelope skin is the sacrifice; verily he gathers the sacrifice with the sacrifice. If he were to gather with the skin of tame animals he would afflict with pain tame animals; he gathers with a black antelope skin; verily he afflicts with pain wild animals [2]; therefore of animals of even birth the wild animals are the smaller, for they are afflicted with pain. He gathers on the hairy side, for on that side is it pure. He strews the lotus leaf and the black antelope skin together; the black antelope skin is this (earth), the lotus leaf yonder (sky); verily on both sides he encircles him with these two. Agni departed from the gods, Atharvan perceived him; 'Atharvan first pressed thee out, O Agni' [3], he says; verily he gathers him with him who perceived him. 'Thee, O Agni, from the lotus', he says, for in the lotus leaf he found him reposing. 'Thee the sage, Dadhya˝c', he says; Dadhya˝c, son of Atharvan, was full of brilliance; verily he bestows brilliance upon him. 'Thee Pathya Vrsan', he says; verily with the latter (verse) he hails him whom he has previously addressed [4]. He gathers with four (verses), the metres are four; verily (he gathers) with the metres. (He gathers) with Gayatri verses for a Brahman, for the Brahman is connected with the Gayatri; with Tristubh verses for a Rajanya, for the Rajanya is connected with the Tristubh; if he desire of a man, 'May he be richer', he should gather for him with both sets; verily upon him he bestows brilliance and power together. With eight (verses) he gathers; the Gayatri has eight syllables, Agni is connected with the Gayatri; verily he gathers all the extent of Agni. 'Sit thou, O Hotr', he says; verily he makes the deities sit down for him; 'The Hotr down', (with these words he makes) men (sit down); 'Sit thou down', (with these words he makes) birds (sit down); 'Be born noble in the forefront of the days', he says; verily he produces for him the common session of gods and men.

v. 1. 5.

In that he digs he acts as it were harshly to this (earth); he pours water down, the waters are appeased; verily with the waters appeased he calms her pain. 'May for thee Vayu, Matarišvan unite', he says; Vayu is breath; verily with breath he unites her breath; 'may for thee Vayu', he says; therefore the rain speeds from the sky, made to fall by Vayu. 'To him, O goddess, be Vasat with thee' [1], he says; the seasons are six; verily upon the seasons he bestows rain; therefore in all the seasons it rains. If he were to utter the Vasat cry, his Vasat cry would be exhausted; if he were not to utter the Vasat cry, the Raksases would destroy the sacrifice; 'Vat', he says; verily, mysteriously he utters the Vasat cry; his Vasat cry is not exhausted, the Raksases do not destroy the sacrifice. 'Well born with light', (with these words) he ties up with an Anustubh verse; all the metres are the Anustubh [2], Agni's dear body is the metres; verily he encircles him with his dear body; likely to win a garment is he who knows thus. Agni when tied up is connected with Varuna; 'Arise, thou of fair sacrifice', 'Arise, erect, to aid us', with two (verses) addressed to Savitr he rises up; verily, instigated by Savitr, he sends aloft the wrath of Varuna that is in him; with two (verses) (he arises), for support. 'Born, thou art the child [3] of the two worlds, he says; the two worlds are these two (sky and earth), Agni is the child of the two; therefore he says thus. 'O Agni, brilliant, distributed among the plants', he says, for when they distribute him, then he becomes more brilliant. 'Thou didst come thundering from thy mothers', he says; his mothers are the plants; verily from them he makes him to fall. 'Be firm, of strong limbs', (with these words) he places (Agni) on the ass [4]; verily thereby he yokes it for strength. He gathers with the ass; therefore the ass is the best burden-gatherer of animals. He gathers with the ass; therefore the ass, even when grazing is bad, becomes fat beyond other animals, for by it they gather food and light. He gathers with the ass; therefore the ass, being of double seed, is born as the least of animals, for Agni burns his place of birth. Now he is mounted upon offspring [5], and is strong to burn with pain offspring. 'Be auspicious, for offspring', he says; verily he makes him calm for offspring. '(For offspring) of man, O Angiras', he says, for offspring are of men. 'Scorch not sky and earth, nor the atmosphere, nor the trees', he says; verily he makes him calm for these worlds. 'Let the steed advance, thundering', he says, for he is a steed. 'The sounding, the donkey, the flier' [6], he says, for the seers called him the 'donkey'. 'Bearing Agni of the dust', he says, for he bears Agni. 'May he fall not before his day', he says; verily he bestows life upon him; therefore an ass lives all its days; therefore are men afraid when an ass perishes before its day. 'The strong, bearing the strong Agni', he says, for he is strong, and Agni is strong. 'Germ of the waters [7], him of the ocean', he says, for Agni is the germ of the waters. 'O Agni, come hither for enjoyment', (at these words) the two worlds burst apart; in that he says, 'O Agni, come hither for enjoyment', it is for the separation (vityai) of these worlds. He, having left his place and not having reached a support, then thinks of the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer; 'holy order and truth', he says; holy order is this (earth), truth [8] is yonder (sky); verily in these two he establishes him, and neither the Adhvaryu nor the sacrificer is ruined. Agni when tied up, as Varuna, attacks the sacrificer; 'O plants, do ye accept Agni here', he says, for atonement. 'Casting aside all hostilities, all evil imaginings', he says, to smite away the Raksases. 'Sitting down, may he smite away from us misfortune', he says, for support. 'O plants, do ye rejoice [9] in him', he says; Agni's portion is the plants; verily he unites him with them. 'Rich in flowers and having fair leaves', he says; therefore plants produce fruit. 'This germ of yours, of due season, hath sat him in his ancient seat', he says; verily in those he establishes them from whom he makes him to fall. With two verses he deposits (it), for support.

v. 1. 6.

Agni when tied up is connected with Varuna; 'With extending blaze', (with these words) he unloosens (him); verily, instigated by Savitr, he lets loose on all sides the wrath of Varuna that is in him. He pours water down; the waters are appeased; verily by the waters appeased he calms his pain; with three (verses) he pours (it) down, Agni is three fold; verily he calms Agni's pain throughout his whole extent. 'Mitra having united the earth', he says; Mitra is the auspicious one of the gods; verily [1] with him he unites him, for atonement. If he were to unite him with sherds of domestic pots, he would afflict domestic pots with pain; he unites (him) with fragments of broken pots; these are not used for life; verily he afflicts them with pain. He unites (him) with sand, for support, and for healing. He unites (him) with goat-hair; the female goat is Agni's dear form; verily he unites him with his dear form, and thus with brilliance. He unites him with the hairs of a black antelope skin [2]; the black antelope skin is the sacrifice; verily he unites the sacrifice with the sacrifice. 'The Rudras, having gathered together the earth', he says; these deities first gathered him together; verily with them he gathers him together. 'Thou art the head of Makha', he says; Makha is the sacrifice, the firepan is his head; therefore he says thus. 'Ye are the two feet of the sacrifice', he says, for these are the two feet of the sacrifice [3]; and also (it serves) for support. He hands (the pan) over with one set (of verses), and addresses it with another, to make a pairing. He makes it with a triple stand; these worlds are three; (verily it serves) to obtain these worlds. He makes (it) with the metres; the metres are strength; verily he makes it with strength. He makes a hole with a Yajus, for discrimination. He makes it so great, of equal girth with Prajapati, the beginning of the sacrifice. He makes it with two breasts, for the milking of sky and earth; he makes it of four breasts, for the milking of cattle; he makes it of eight breasts, for the milking of the metres. For him who practises witchcraft he should make it nine cornered; verily gathering together the threefold thunderbolt he hurls it at his foe, to lay him low. 'Having made the great pan', (with these words) he deposits (it); verily he establishes it among the deities.

v. 1. 7.

With seven (verses) he fumigates; the breaths in the head are seven, the pan is the head of the sacrifice; verily he places the breaths in the head of the sacrifice; therefore seven are the breaths in the head. He fumigates with horse-dung; the horse is connected with Prajapati; (verily it serves) to connect it with its place of birth. 'May Aditi thee', he says; Aditi is this (earth); verily with Aditi in Aditi he digs, to avoid injury to it, for one hurts not oneself. 'May the wives of the gods thee', he says; the wives of the gods made it first [1]; verily with them he places it. 'May the Dhisanas thee', he says; the Dhisanas are the sciences; verily he enkindles it with the sciences. 'May the wives thee', he says; the wives are the metres; verily with the wives he makes it cooked. 'May the protectors, he says; the protectors are the Hotr's offices; verily with the Hotr's offices he cooks it. 'May the women thee', he says; the women are the wives of the gods [2]; verily with them he cooks it. With six (verses) he cooks; the seasons are six; verily with the seasons he cooks it. 'May they cook', he says twice; therefore twice in the year does the corn ripen. The pan when enkindled is connected with Varuna; he approaches it with (a verse) addressed to Mitra, for atonement. 'May the god Savitr dig thee out', he says; verily, instigated by Savitr, he digs it out with holy power and with the deities. 'Breaking not, O earth, fill the regions, the quarters' [3], he says; therefore Agni shines along all the quarters. 'Arise, become great, stand upright, be thou firm', he says, for support. A bowl that is not poured upon is connected with the Asuras; he pours upon it; verily he makes it to be with the gods; with goats' milk he pours upon it; the milk of the goat is the highest form of draught; verily he pours upon it with the highest draught; (he pours) with a Yajus, for discrimination. He pours with the metres; with the metres it is made; verily with the metres he pours upon the metres.

v. 1. 8.

With twenty-one beans he approaches the head of the man; beans are impure, the man's head is impure; verily by the impure he redeems its impurity and making it pure takes it. There are twenty-one; man is composed of twenty-one parts; (verily they serve) to obtain man. The man's head is impure as bereft of the breaths; he deposits (it near) an ant-heap pierced in seven places; the breaths in the head are seven; verily he unites it with the breaths, to make it pure. Of all those [1] that were comrades of death Yama holds the overlordship; he sings the verses of Yama; verily from Yama he redeems it; with three he sings; three are these worlds; verily from these worlds he redeems it; therefore one should not give to one who sings, for the Gatha appropriates it. To the fires he offers animals; the fires are desires; verily he wins his desires. If he were not to offer the animals, then he would not obtain animals [2]; if he were to let them go after circumambulation with fire, he would disturb the sacrifice; if he were to keep them until the conclusion, the heads would be exhausted; in that he offers the animals, he wins thereby animals; in that he lets them go after circumambulation with fire, (it serves) to prevent the exhaustion of the heads; he concludes (the rite) with (an animal) for Prajapati; Prajapati is the sacrifice; verily he concludes the sacrifice in the sacrifice. Prajapati created offspring, he thought himself empty, he saw these April (verses), with them from the head [3] he satisfied himself. In that there are these April verses, and Prajapati is the sacrifice, he satisfies the sacrifice from the beginning with them. They are of unlimited metres; Prajapati is unlimited; (verily they serve) to obtain Prajapati. The pairs are deficient and redundant, for propagation; hairy by name is that metre of Prajapati, animals are hairy; verily he wins animals. There are all forms in these; all forms are made when Agni has to be piled up, therefore these appertain to Agni, to be piled [4]. Twenty-one kindling-(verses) be repeats; the twenty-onefold (Stoma) is light; verily he attains light, and a support besides, for the twenty-one fold (Stoma) is support. Twenty-four (verses) he recites; the year has twenty-four half-months, Agni Vaišvanara is the year; verily straightway he wins Vaišvanara. He recites them straight on, for the world of heaven is as it were going straight away. 'Let the half-years, the seasons, increase thee, O Agni ', he says; verily with the half-years he causes Agni to increase [5], with the seasons the year. 'Illuminate all the quarters of the earth', he says; therefore Agni illuminates all the quarters. 'The Ašvins removed death from him', he says; verily from him he repels death. 'We from the darkness', he says; the darkness is the evil one; verily from him he smites away the evil one. 'We have come to the highest light', he says; the highest light is yonder sun; verily he attains unity with the sun. The year lags not, his future fails not, for whom these are performed. The last he recites with the word 'light' in it; verily he bestows on him light above, to reveal the world of heaven.

v. 1. 9.

With six (verses) he consecrates; the seasons are six; verily he consecrates him with the seasons. With seven he consecrates; the metres are seven; verily he consecrates him with the metres. 'Let every man of the god that leads', with the final Anustubh he offers; the Anustubh is speech; therefore speech is the highest of the breaths. The first quarter foot is deficient by one syllable; therefore men live upon the incomplete part of speech. He offers with a full (one), for Prajapati is full as it were; (verily it serves) to obtain Prajapati [1]; he offers with one that is deficient, for from the deficient Prajapati created offspring; (verily it serves) for the creation of offspring. If he were to heat it on the flame, he would win what has been, if on the embers, what is to be; he heats it on the embers; verily he wins what is to be, for what is to be is greater than what has been. With two verses he heats (it); the sacrificer has two feet; (verily it serves) for support. The pan is gathered together with holy power and the Yajus; if it should break, the sacrificer would be ruined [2], and his sacrifice destroyed. 'O Mitra, do thou heat this pan', he says; Mitra is holy power; verily on holy power he establishes it; the sacrificer is not ruined, nor is his sacrifice destroyed. If it should break, he should unite it with the selfsame potsherds; that is the atonement for it. If a man has attained prosperity, he should for him deposit (the fire) after producing it by friction; this is one that has succeeded; verily he approaches his own deity [3]. For him who desires prosperity should be used (the fire) which comes to life from the pan, for from it is it produced, it is self-produced by name; verily he becomes prosperous. If he desire of a man, 'May I produce a foe for him', he should take for him (fire) from elsewhere, and deposit it; verily straightway he produces a foe for him. From a frying-pan he should (take fire) and deposit (it) for one who desires food; in a frying-pan food is kept; verily he wins food with its birth place [4]. He deposits Mu˝ja grass; Mu˝ja is strength; verily he bestows upon him strength. Agni departed from the gods, he entered the Krumuka wood; he deposits Krumuka; verily he wins what of Agni is there imbued. With butter he joins (it); butter is the dear home of Agni; verily he unites him with his dear abode, and with brilliance also [5]. He puts on (a stick) of Vikankata wood; verily he wins radiance; he puts on one of ăami, for atonement. 'Do thou sit down in the lap of this mother', with three (verses) he adores (the fire) when born; three are these worlds; verily he attains reputation in these worlds; verily also he bestows breaths on himself.

v. 1. 10.

Formerly Agni would not burn what was not cut by the axe, but Prayoga, the seer, made that acceptable to him. 'Whatever logs we place on thee', (with these words) he puts on a kindling-stick; verily he makes what is not cut by the axe acceptable to him; all is acceptable to him who knows thus. He puts on one of Udumbara wood; the Udumbara is strength; verily he confers strength upon him. Prajapati created Agni; him on creation the Raksases [1] were fain to destroy; he saw that (hymn) of the Raksas-slaying (one); therewith he smote away the Raksases; in that it is (the hymn) of the Raksas-slaying one, thereby he drives away the Raksases from Agni when born. He puts on one of Ašvattha wood; of trees the Ašvattha is the overcomer of foes; (verily it serves) for victory. He puts on one of Vikankata; verily he wins light. He puts on one of ăami wood, for atonement. 'Sharpened is my holy power', 'Their arms have I uplifted', (with these words) he makes him speak over the last two Udumbara (sticks) [2]; verily by means of the holy power he quickens the kingly power, and by the kingly power the holy power; therefore a Brahman who has a princely person is superior to another Brahman; therefore a prince who has a Brahman is superior to another prince. Now Agni is death, gold is immortality; he puts a gold plate within; verily he severs immortality from death; it has twenty-one projections, the worlds of the gods are twenty-one, the twelve months, the four seasons, these three worlds, and as twenty-first yonder sun [3]; so many are the worlds of the gods; verily from them he severs his foe. By means of the projections the gods reduced the Asuras to straits (nirbadÚ); that is the reason why projections (nirbadhßh) have their names; it is covered with projections; verily he reduces his foes to straits. He puts (it) on with a verse addressed to Savitr, for instigation. 'Night and the dawn', with (this as) second; verily he raises him with day and night. 'The gods, granters of wealth, support Agni', be says; the gods, granters of wealth, are the breaths; verily having raised him with day and night [4] he supports him with the breaths. Sitting he puts (it) on; therefore offspring are born sitting; the black antelope skin is above; gold is brilliance, the black antelope skin is holy power; verily on both sides he encircles him, with brilliance and with holy power. The sling is of six fathoms in extent; the seasons are six; verily he raises him with the seasons; if it is of twelve fathoms, (he raises him) with the year. It is of Mu˝ja grass; the Mu˝ja is strength; verily he unites him with strength. 'Thou art the bird of fair feathers', (with these words) he gazes; verily he declares his greatness in that form. 'Go to the sky, fly to the heaven', he says; verily he makes him to go to the world of heaven.

The Apri Hymn for the Horse Sacrifice

v. 1. 11.

a Enkindled, decking the store-room of prayers,
Swelling with sweet butter, O Agni,
Steed bearing the strong drink, O all-knower,
Carry it to the dear place of the gods.
b With ghee adorning the paths leading to the gods,
Let the strong one, wise, go to the gods;
May thee, O courser, the regions attend,
Bestow strength on this sacrificer.
c To be praised thou art, and to be celebrated, O steed;
Swift and pure art thou, O courser;
May Agni in unison with the gods, the Vasus,
Bear thee [1], a glad messenger, he the all-knower.
d Rejoicing in the strewn grass, well strewed,
That doth extend wide and broad on the earth,
Joined with the gods, may Aditi in unison,
Bestowing pleasantness, cause it to prosper.
c These happy (doors), all formed,
Opening with their sides, with the centre,
Lofty and sounding, adorning themselves,
The doors divine, may they be of pleasant entrance.
f Moving between Mitra and Varuna,
Well knowing the beginning of sacrifices,
The two dawns for you [2], rich in gold, rich in adornment,
I settle here in the birthplace of holy order.
g First for you have I made glad the two, who share one car, fair of hue,
The gods that gaze on all the worlds,
Those that ordain your ordinances,
The two Hotrs, that indicate the light in its place.
h May Bharati with the Adityas love our sacrifice;
Sarasvati with the Rudras hath holpen us,
And Ida invoked with the Vasus in unison;
Our sacrifice, O goddesses, place ye with the immortals.
i Tvastr begot the hero with love for the gods;
From Tvastr is born the courser, the swift steed [3];
Tvastr produced all this world;
The maker of much do thou offer to, as Hotr.
k May the steed, anointed with glee, of his own impulse
Go to the gods in due season to their abode;
May the forest lord knowing the world of the gods,
Bear the oblations made ready by Agni.
l Waxing with the fervour of Prajapati,
Immediately on birth, O Agni, thou didst support the sacrifice
As harbinger with the oblation offered with Hail!
Do thou go; let the gods eat the oblation duly.

PRAPATHAKA II

The Preparation of the Ground for the Fire

v. 2. 1.

Headed by Visnu the gods won finally these worlds by the metres; in that he strides the strides of Visnu, the sacrificer becoming Visnu wins finally these worlds. 'Thou art the step of Visnu, overcoming hostility', he says; the earth is connected with the Gayatri, the atmosphere with the Tristubh, the sky with the Jagati, the quarters with the Anustubh; verily he wins in order these worlds with the metres. Prajapati created Agni; he being created went away from him [1]; he followed him with this (verse), 'He hath cried'; with it he won the home dear to Agni; in that he repeats this (verse), he wins thereby the home dear to Agni. Now he who steps the strides of Visnu is apt as he goes away to be burnt up; he turns with four (verses); the. metres are four, Agni's dear body is the metres; verily he turns round on his dear body [2]; he turns round from left to right; verily he turns round on his own strength; therefore the right side of the body is the stronger; verily also does he turn with the turning of the sun. Varuna seized ăunahšepa Ajigarti, he saw this verse addressed to Varuna, by it he freed himself from the noose of Varuna; Varuna seizes him who takes the fire-pan; 'From us the highest knot, O Varuna', he says; verily thereby he frees himself from Varuna's noose [3]. 'I have drawn thee', he says, for he draws him. 'Be thou firm and motionless', he says, for support. 'Let all the folk desire thee', he says; verily with the folk he unites him. 'In him establish the kingdom', he says; verily in him he makes the kingdom to abide. If he desire of a man, 'May he be a ruler', he should think of him with his mind; verily he becomes a ruler [4]. 'In greatness he hath risen erect in the van of the dawns', he says; verily he makes him the first of his peers. 'Emerging from the darkness', he says; verily he smites away darkness from him. 'He hath come with the light', he says; verily he bestows light upon him. He places him with four (verses); the metres are four; verily with the metres (he places him); with an Atichandas as the last; the Atichandas is the highest of metres; verily he makes him the highest of his peers; it contains [5] the word 'sit' (sad); verily he makes him attain reality (sat-tvßm). With (the hymn) of Vatsapri he reverences (him); by that did Vatsapri Bhalandana win the home dear to Agni; verily by it he wins the home dear to Agni. It has eleven (verses); verily in eleven places he bestows strength on the sacrificer. By the Stoma the gods prospered in this world, by the metres in yonder world; the hymn of Vatsapri is the type of the Stoma; in that he pays reverence with (the hymn) of Vatsapri [6], he wins with it this world; in that he strides the steps of Visnu, he wins by them yonder world. On the first day he strides forth, on the next day he pays reverence; therefore the minds of some creatures are set on energy, those of others on rest; therefore the active lords it over him who takes his ease therefore the active fixes upon a man who takes his ease. He clenches his fist, he restrains his speech, for support.

v. 2. 2.

'O lord of food, accord us food', he says; the lord of food is Agni; verily he grants him food. 'Uninjurious, impetuous', he says; he means in fact 'free from disease'. 'Do thou further the donor, bestow strength on our bipeds, our quadrupeds', he says; verily he invokes this blessing. 'May the All-gods bear thee up', he says; the All-gods are the breaths [1]; verily with the breaths he raises him. 'O Agni, with their thoughts', he says; with the purpose for which he raises him, he verily unites him. He places (him) with four (verses); the metres are four; verily with the metres (he places him); with an Atichandas as the last; the Atichandas is the highest of the metres; verily he makes him the highest of his peers; it contains the word 'sit' (sad); verily he makes him attain reality (sat-tvßm). 'Come forward, O Agni, rich in light' [2], he says; verily he bestows light upon him. With his body he injures him whom he injures; 'Harm not our offspring with thy body', he says; verily for his offspring he makes him gentle. The Raksases infest that sacrifice where the axle creaks; 'He hath cried', he repeats, to smite away the Raksases. They bear (him) with a cart; verily he confers honour upon him; therefore he that has a cart and he that has a chariot are of guests [3] the most honoured: honour is his who knows thus. 'With kindling-wood serve Agni', (with these words) he puts a kindling-stick, made wet with ghee, upon him when put in place; that is as when hospitality with melted butter is offered to a guest on arrival; (he puts it on) with a Gayatri for a Brahman, for the Brahman is connected with the Gayatri, with a Tristubh for a Rajanya, for the Rajanya is connected with the Tristubh. He casts the ash into the waters; Agni's place of birth is in the waters; verily he makes him attain his own place of birth; with three (verses) he casts (it); Agni is threefold [4]; verily he makes Agni attain support through all his extent. Now he casts away Agni who puts the ash into the waters; he places it (in the pan) with (verses) containing the word 'light'; verily he bestows light upon him; with two (he places it), for support. He throws away offspring and cattle who puts the ash in the waters; 'Return with strength', 'With wealth', (with these words) he comes back; verily he bestows upon himself offspring and cattle. 'May the Adityas [5], the Rudras, the Vasus kindle thee again', he says; these deities first kindled him; verily by them he kindles him. 'Hearken', 'Be thou', (with these words) he pays reverence; verily he awakens him; therefore after sleeping creatures awake. In his place he pays reverence, and therefore cattle returning go to their place.

v. 2. 3.

Yama holds the overlordship of the whole extent of earth; he who without asking from Yama a place of it for divine sacrifice piles up the fire is piling it for Yama. 'Go hence', (with these words) he makes him fix (on the place); verily having asked from Yama a place of it for divine sacrifice, he piles the fire for himself. Seeking they could not find so much as an arrow point of it which was not covered with death; the gods saw this Yajus, 'Go hence'; in that he makes him fix with this [1], he piles the fire on a place freed from death. He throws up (the earth); verily he smites away any impurity in it; he sprinkles water on, for atonement. He puts down sand; that is the form of Agni Vaišvanara; verily by his form he wins Vaišvanara. He puts down salt; salt is the nourishment and the propagating; verily he piles the fire in nourishment, in propagation, and also in concord; for the salt is the concord [2] of cattle. Sky and earth were together; separating they said, 'Let us share together what is worthy of sacrifice'. What of yonder (sky) was worthy of sacrifice, it placed in this (earth), that became salt; what of this (earth) was worthy of sacrifice, it placed in yonder (sky) and that is yonder black in the moon; when he puts down the salt he should think of yonder (black); verily he piles the fire in that of sky and earth which is worthy of sacrifice. 'This is that Agni' is Višvamitra's [3] hymn; by that Višvamitra won the abode dear to Agni; verily by it he wins the abode dear to Agni. By the metres the gods went to the world of heaven; he places four (bricks) pointing east the metres are four; verily by the metres the sacrificer goes to the world of heaven. As they went to the world of heaven, the quarters were confused; they put down two in front, facing the same way, and two [4] behind, facing the same way; by them they made firm the quarters. In that he places two in front, facing the same way, and two behind, facing the same way, (it serves) to make firm the quarters; again, the metres are cattle; verily he makes cattle available for him. He places eight (bricks); the Gayatri has eight syllables, Agni is connected with the Gayatri; verily he piles Agni in his full extent. He places eight; the Gayatri has eight syllables; the Gayatri knows in truth the world of heaven; (verily it serves) to reveal the world of heaven [5]. He places thirteen world-fillers; they make twenty-one, the twenty-onefold Stoma is a support, the Garhapatya is a support, verily he finds support in the support of the twenty-onefold (Stoma), the Garhapatya; he who knows thus finds support in the fire which he has piled. He who first piles (the fire) should pile in five layers; the sacrifice is fivefold, cattle are fivefold; verily he wins the sacrifice and cattle. He who piles for a second time should pile in three layers; these worlds are three; verily he finds support [6] in these worlds. He who piles for a third time should pile in one layer; the world of heaven is in one place; verily he goes to the world of heaven by the single (layer). He makes (them) firm with mortar; therefore the bone is covered with meat; he who knows thus does not become diseased of skin. There are five layers, he makes firm with five (sets of) dust; they make up ten, the Viraj has ten syllables, the Viraj is food; verily he finds support in the Viraj, in proper food.

v. 2. 4.

The Agni that was before and the one in the fire-pan are at variance; 'Be united', with four (verses) he unites them together; the metres are four, Agni's dear body is the metres; verily with his dear body he puts them in order. 'Be united, he says; therefore the kingly power unites with the holy power; in that after uniting (them) he separates (them), therefore the holy power separates from the kingly power. With the seasons [1] they consecrate him; with the seasons likewise he must be set free; 'As a mother her son, the earth Agni of the dust', he says; verily having consecrated him with the seasons, with the season he sets him free. With (a verse) addressed to Vaišvanara, he takes the sling; verily he makes it ready. For Nirrti there are three (bricks) black, dried by a chaff fire; chaff is the portion of Nirrti, black is the form of Nirrti; verily by her own form he propitiates Nirrti. They go to this quarter; this [2] is the quarter of Nirrti; verily in her own quarter he propitiates Nirrti. He places (it) in a self-made hole or a cleft; that is the abode of Nirrti; verily he propitiates Nirrti in her own abode. He places (them) over against the sling, the noose is connected with Nirrti; verily he frees him straightway from the noose of Nirrti. He places three, man is threefold in arrangement; verily he removes by sacrifice Nirrti from the whole extent of man. He places them going away (from the place of sacrifice); verily he drives away Nirrti from him [3]. They return without looking round, to conceal Nirrti. Having purified, they pay reverence, for purity. To the Garhapatya they pay reverence; verily having wandered in the world of Nirrti, they return, purified, to the world of the gods. They pay reverence with one (verse); verily in one place they bestow strength on the sacrificer. 'Abode and collector of riches', he says; rich are offspring and cattle; verily he unites him with offspring and cattle.

v. 2. 5.

With man's measure he metes out; man is commensurate with the sacrifice; verily he metes him with a member of the sacrifice; so great is he as a man with arms extended; so much strength is there in man; verily with strength he metes him. Winged is he, for wingless he could not fly; these wings are longer by an ell; therefore birds have strength by their wings. The wings and the tail are a fathom in breadth; so much is the strength in man [1], he is commensurate in strength. He metes with a bamboo; the bamboo is connected with Agni; (verily it serves) to unite him with his birthplace. With a Yajus he yokes (the team), with a Yajus he ploughs, for discrimination. He ploughs with a (team) of six oxen; the seasons are six; verily with the seasons he ploughs him. In that (he ploughs) with (a team) of twelve oxen, (he ploughs) with the year. This (earth) was afraid of excessive burning by Agni; she saw this of two sorts, ploughed and unploughed [2], then indeed he did not burn her excessively; in that there is ploughed and unploughed, (it serves to prevent) her being excessively burned. 'He should restrain Agni when twofold', they say; in that there is ploughed and unploughed (it serves) to restrain Agni. So many are animals, bipeds and quadrupeds; if he were to let them loose to the east, he would give them over to Rudra; if to the south, he would deliver them to the Pitrs; if to the west, the Raksases would destroy them; to the north he let them loose; this is the auspicious quarter of gods and men (3); verily he lets them loose in that direction. Again he lets them loose to this quarter, the breath is yonder sun: verily he lets them loose following the breath. From left to right they turn, around their own strength they turn; therefore the right side of the body is the stronger; verily they turn with the turning of the sun. Therefore cattle depart from (us), and come back towards (us). Three by three he ploughs the furrows [4]; verily he extends the threefold (Stoma) in the beginning of the sacrifice. He scatters plants, by holy power he wins food, in the Arka the Arka is piled. With fourteen verses he scatters; the domesticated plants are seven, the wild are seven; (verily they serve) to win both sets. He scatters (seeds) of diverse kinds of food, to win diverse foods. He scatters on the ploughed (ground), for in the ploughed plants find support. He scatters along the furrows, for propagation. In twelve furrows he scatters; the year has twelve months; verily with the year he cooks food for him. If he who piles the fire [5] should eat of what has not been obtained, he would be separated from what has been obtained. Those trees which bear fruit he should sprinkle in the kindling-wood, to obtain what has not been obtained. From the quarters he gathers clods; verily winning the strength of the quarters, he piles the fire in the strength of the quarters; he should take a clod from the quarter where is he whom he hates, (saying), 'Food and strength do I take hence', verily he wins from that quarter food and strength, and hungry is he who is in that quarter. He scatters over the high altar, for on the high altar is the fire piled; the high altar is cattle; verily he wins cattle; (verily it serves) for the avoidance of passing over a limb of the sacrifice.

v. 2. 6.

'O Agni, strength and fame are thine', (with these words) he scatters sand; that is the hymn of Agni Vaišvanara; verily with the hymn he wins (Agni) Vaišvanara. With six (verses) he scatters; the year has six seasons, Agni Vaišvanara is the year; verily straightway he wins Vaišvanara. This metre is called the ocean; offspring are born like the ocean; in that he scatters sand with this (hymn), (it is) for the propagation of offspring. Indra [1] hurled his bolt at Vrtra; it parted into three, one third the wooden sword, one-third the chariot, one-third the sacrificial post; the interior reeds which were crushed became gravel; that is the explanation of gravel; gravel is a thunderbolt, the fire is an animal; in that he supports the fire with gravel, he encircles with the bolt cattle for him; therefore cattle are encircled with the bolt; therefore the stronger does not receive the weaker. He should support (the fire) with twenty-one (pieces of gravel) for one who desires cattle [2]; there are seven breaths in the head, cattle are the breaths; verily he wins cattle for him by the breaths. With twenty-seven (should he support it) for one who has foes; thus making the threefold bolt he hurls it at his foe, to lay him low. He should support (it) with unnumbered ones, to win what is unnumbered. If he desire of a man, 'May he be without cattle', then without piling the gravel in support, he should separate the sand; verily he pours forth for him the seed on all sides in (a place) not encircled; verily he becomes without cattle [3]. If he desire of a man, 'May he be rich in cattle,' he should separate the sand, after piling the gravel; verily he pours forth for him the seed in one direction in an encircled (place), and he becomes rich in cattle. With (a verse) addressed to Soma he separates (the sand); Soma is impregnator of seed; verily he impregnates seed; with a Gayatri for a Brahman, for the Brahman is connected with the Gayatri, with a Tristubh for a Rajanya, for the Rajanya is connected with the Tristubh. To ăamyu, son of Brhaspati, the sacrifice did not resort; it entered the fire [4]; it departed from the fire in the form of a black antelope, it entered the horse, it became the intermediate hoof of the horse; in that he makes the horse advance, he wins the sacrifice which has entered the horse. 'By Prajapati must the fire be piled', they say; the horse is connected with Prajapati; in that he makes the horse advance, by Prajapati he piles the fire. He puts down a lotus leaf; the lotus leaf is the birthplace of the fire; verily he piles the fire with its own birthplace. 'Thou art the back of the waters', (with these words) he puts (it) down; the lotus leaf is the back of the waters; verily with its form he puts it down.

v. 2. 7.

'The holy power born', (with these words) he puts down the gold disk. Prajapati created creatures with the Brahman class as first; verily the sacrificer creates offspring with the Brahman as first; 'the holy power born', he says; therefore the Brahman is the first; the first he becomes who knows thus. The theologians say, 'Nor on earth, nor in the atmosphere, nor on sky should the fire be piled'; if he were to pile (it) on earth, he would afflict the earth with pain; nor trees, nor plants would [1] be born; if he should pile (it) in the atmosphere, he would afflict the atmosphere with pain, the birds would not be born; if he should pile (it) in the sky, he would afflict the sky with pain, Parjanya would not rain. He puts down a gold disk; gold is immortality; verily in immortality he piles the fire, for propagation. He puts down a golden man, to support the world of the sacrificer; if he were to put it over the perforation in the brick, he would obstruct the breath of cattle and of the sacrificer; he puts it down on the south side [2] with head to the east: he supports the world of the sacrificer; he does not obstruct the breath of cattle and the sacrificer. Or rather he does place it over the perforation of the brick, to allow the breath to pass out. 'The drop hath fallen', (with these words) he touches it; verily he establishes it in the Hotr's offices. He puts down two ladles, one made of Karsmarya and full of butter, one of Udumbara and full of curds; that made of Karsmarya is this (earth), that of Udumbara is yonder (sky); verily he deposits these two (earth and sky) [3]. In silence he puts (them) down, for he should not obtain them with a Yajus; the Karsmarya on the south, the Udumbara on the north; therefore is yonder (sky) higher than this (earth); the Karsmarya filled with butter, the butter is a thunderbolt, the Karsmarya is a thunderbolt; verily by the thunderbolt he smites away the Raksases from the south of the sacrifice; the Udumbara filled with curds, curds are cattle, the Udumbara is strength; verily he confers strength upon cattle. He puts (them) down filled; verily filled they wait on him [4] in yonder world. 'In the Viraj should the fire be piled', they say; the Viraj is the ladle; in that he puts down two ladles, he piles Agni in the Viraj. As each beginning of the sacrifice is being performed, the Raksases seek to destroy the sacrifice; the golden disk is a beginning of the sacrifice; in that he pours butter over the gold disk, he smites away the Raksases from the beginning of the sacrifice. With five (verses) he pours butter; the sacrifice is fivefold; verily he smites away the Raksases from the whole extent of the sacrifice; he pours butter transversely; therefore animals move their limbs transversely, for support.

v. 2. 8.

He puts down the naturally perforated brick; the naturally perforated brick is this (earth); verily he puts down the (earth). He makes the horse sniff it; verily he bestows breath upon it; now the horse is connected with Prajapati; verily he piles the fire with Prajapati. The first brick that is put down obstructs the breath of cattle and of the sacrificer; it is a naturally perforated one, to permit the breath to pass, and also to reveal the world of heaven. 'In the fire must the fire be piled', they say; the Brahman [1] is Agni Vaišvanara, and to him should he hand over the first brick over which a Yajus has been recited; with the Brahman he should deposit it; verily in the fire he piles the fire. Now he who ignorantly puts down a brick is liable to experience misfortune. Three boons should he give, the breaths are three; (verily they serve) to guard the breaths; two only should be given, for the breaths are two; one only should be given, for the breath is one. The fire is an animal here [2]; animals do not find pleasure in want of grass; a brick of Durva grass he puts down, to support animals; with two (verses), for support. 'Arising from every stem', he says, for it finds support with every stem; 'do thou, O Durva, extend us with a thousand, a hundred', he says; Prajapati is connected with a thousand; (verily it serves) to obtain Prajapati. The fact that it has three lines on it is a mark of the gods; the gods put it down with the mark uppermost, the Asuras with the mark undermost [3]; if he desire of a man, 'May he become richer', he should put it down for him mark uppermost; verily he becomes richer; if he desire of a man, 'May he become worse off', he should put his down mark undermost; verily he makes him depressed in accordance with its birthplace among the Asuras, and he becomes worse off. (The brick) has three lines on it; that with three lines is these worlds; verily he excludes its foe from these worlds. When the Angirases went to the world of heaven, the sacrificial cake becoming a tortoise crawled after them [4]; in that he puts down a tortoise, just as one who knows a place leads straight (to it), so the tortoise leads him straight to the world of heaven. The tortoise is the intelligence of animals; in that he puts down the tortoise, animals resort there, seeing their own intelligence; in that the heads of the dead animals are deposited, a burial-ground is made; in that he puts down the living tortoise, he is no maker of a burial-ground, the tortoise is suitable for a dwelling [5]. 'To the pious the winds honey', (with these words) he anoints with curds, mixed with honey; verily he makes him ready; curds is a food of the village, honey of the wild; in that he anoints with curds mixed with honey, (it serves) to win both. 'May the two great ones, heaven and earth', he says; verily with them he encircles him on both sides. He puts it down to the east,' to attain the world of heaven; he puts it down to the east facing west; therefore [6] to the east facing west the animals attend the sacrifice. If he piles the fire without a navel, (the fire) enters the navel of the sacrificer, and is liable to injure him. He puts down the mortar; this is the navel of the fire; verily he piles the fire with its navel, to avoid injury. (The mortar) is of Udumbara wood; the Udumbara is strength; verily he wins strength; in the middle he puts it down; verily in the middle he bestows strength upon him; therefore in the middle men enjoy strength. So large is it, commensurate with Prajapati, the mouth of the sacrifice. He pounds; verily he makes food; he puts (it) down with (a verse) addressed to Visnu; the sacrifice is Visnu, the trees are connected with Visnu; verily in the sacrifice he establishes the sacrifice.

v. 2. 9.

The pan is the concentrated light of these lights; in that he puts down the pan, verily he wins the light from these worlds; in the middle he puts (it) down; verily he bestows upon it light; therefore in the middle we reverence the light; with sand he fills (it); that is the form of Agni Vaišvanara; verily by his form he wins Vaišvanara. If he desire of a man, 'May he become hungry', he should put down for one (a pan) deficient in size [1]; if he desire of a man, 'May he eat food that fails not', he should put it down full; verily he eats food that fails not. The man accords a thousand of cattle, the other animals a thousand; in the middle he puts down the head of the man, to give it strength. In the pan he puts (it) down; verily he makes it attain support; the head of the man is impure as devoid of breaths; the breaths are immortality [2], gold is immortality; on the (organs of the) breaths he hurls chips of gold; verily he makes it attain support, and unites it with the breaths. He fills (it) with curds mixed with honey, (saying) 'May I be fit to drink honey'; (he fills with curds) to be curdled with hot milk, for purity. The curds are the food of the village, honey of the wild; in that he fills (it) with curds mixed with honey, (it serves) to win both. He puts down the heads of the animals; the heads of the animals are cattle; verily he wins cattle. If he desire of a man, 'May he have no cattle'[3], he should put them down, looking away, for him; verily he makes cattle look away from him; he becomes without cattle. If he desire of a man, 'May he be rich in cattle', he should put (them) down looking with (the man's head); verily he makes the cattle look with him; he becomes rich in cattle. He puts (the head) of the horse in the east looking west, that of the bull in the west looking east; the beasts other than the oxen and the horses are not beasts at all; verily he makes the oxen and the horses look with him. So many are the animals [4], bipeds and quadrupeds; them indeed he puts down in the fire, in that he puts down the heads of the animals. 'I appoint for thee N.N. of the forest', he says; verily from the cattle of the village he sends pain to those of the wild; therefore of animals born at one time the animals of the wild are the smaller, for they are afflicted with pain. He puts down the head of a snake; verily he wins the brilliance that is in the snake [5]. If he were to put it down looking with the heads of the animals, (the snakes) would bite the animals of the village; if turned away, those of the wild; he should speak a Yajus, he wins the brilliance that is in the snake, he injures not the animals of the village, nor those of the wild. Or rather should it be put down; in that he puts down, thereby he wins the brilliance that is in the serpent; in that he utters a Yajus, thereby is it appeased.

The First Layer of Bricks

v. 2. 10.

The fire is an animal, now the birthplace of the animal is changed in that before the putting up of the bricks the Yajus is performed. The water bricks are seed; be puts down the water bricks; verily he places seed in the womb. Five he puts down (on the east) cattle are fivefold; verily he produces cattle for him; five on the south, the water bricks are the thunderbolt; verily with the thunderbolt he smites away the Raksases from the south of the sacrifice; five he puts down on the west [1], pointing east; seed is impregnated in front from behind; verily from behind he deposits seed for him in front. Five he puts down on the east, pointing west; five on the west pointing east; therefore seed is impregnated in front, offspring are born at the back. On the north he puts down five metre bricks; the metre bricks are cattle; verily he brings cattle on birth to his own dwelling. This (earth) was afraid of excessive burning by the fire; she saw these [2] water bricks, she put them down, then (the fire) did not burn her excessively; in that he puts down the water bricks, (it is) to avoid excessive burning. She said, 'He shall eat food with holy power, for whom these shall be put down, and he who shall know them thus.' He puts down the breath-supporting (bricks); verily he places the breaths in the seed; therefore an animal is born with speech, breath, sight, and bearing. 'This